Denier expresses weight in grams of 9000 meter length of the material. Denier is a unit of measurement that is used to determine the fiber thickness of individual threads or filaments. The term denier comes from the French denier. Originally, the concept was applied mainly to natural fibers, such as silk. Over time, the unit of thickness for synthetic fibers such as polyester, rayon and nylon also came to be identified with the same term.
Denier is a direct numbering system in which lower the denier number, finer the material and higher the denier number, coarser the material. Denier is used to help ascertain the fiber durability of a given material. This process of measuring fibers is essential in order to make sure that the material is the proper strength and texture to be used in the creation of a particular product.
The term micro denier is used to describe filaments that weight is less than one gram per 9000 meters. In order to be considered a “microfiber” the fiber must be less than 1 denier, which is extremely fine. This gives the fill its airy weight, downy feel, and soft, silky texture.
- For single fibers, instead of weighing, a machine called a vibroscope is used. A known length of the fiber (usually 20mm) is set to vibrate, and its fundamental frequency measured, allowing the calculation of the mass and thus the titer (linear density).
- A single strand of silk is approximately one denier.
- A 9000-meter strand of silk weighs about one gram.
- A one-denier polyester fiber has a diameter of about ten micrometers.
- 1 Denier =1 gram per 9000 meters
- 100-denier yarn is finer than 150-denier yarn.
- Fabrics with a high denier count tend to be thick, sturdy, and durable.
- Fabrics with a low denier count tend to be sheer, soft, and silky.