Tag Archives: yarn


Denier expresses weight in grams of 9000 meter length of the material. Denier is a unit of measurement that is used to determine the fiber thickness of individual threads or filaments. The term denier comes from the French denier. Originally, the concept was applied mainly to natural fibers, such as silk. Over time, the unit of thickness for synthetic fibers such as polyester, rayon and nylon also came to be identified with the same term.

Denier is a direct numbering system in which lower the denier number, finer the material and higher the denier number, coarser the material. Denier is used to help ascertain the fiber durability of a given material. This process of measuring fibers is essential in order to make sure that the material is the proper strength and texture to be used in the creation of a particular product.

The term micro denier is used to describe filaments that weight is less than one gram per 9000 meters. In order to be considered a “microfiber” the fiber must be less than 1 denier, which is extremely fine. This gives the fill its airy weight, downy feel, and soft, silky texture.

  • For single fibers, instead of weighing, a machine called a vibroscope is used. A known length of the fiber (usually 20mm) is set to vibrate, and its fundamental frequency measured, allowing the calculation of the mass and thus the titer (linear density).
  • A single strand of silk is approximately one denier.
  • A 9000-meter strand of silk weighs about one gram.
  • A one-denier polyester fiber has a diameter of about ten micrometers.
  • 1 Denier =1 gram per 9000 meters
  • 100-denier yarn is finer than 150-denier yarn.
  • Fabrics with a high denier count tend to be thick, sturdy, and durable.
  • Fabrics with a low denier count tend to be sheer, soft, and silky.


To open the fibres into small tufts which will allow foreign matter to be separated from the fibres and prepare the material for easy carding.
To clean the fibres by removing the foreign matter as the waste. The foreign matter consists mainly of seeds, seed coats, leafs matter and sand/dust in the case of man made fibres.
To mix thoroughly the different component fibres of a mixing so as to give homogeneous blending.
To form a compact and uniform sheet of fibres-the lap.
To feed blended material to the chute feed system.


Different types of Cotton Yarn

Depends on the quality there are mainly three types of cotton yarn are normally found in production field.
Those are as follows:
Combed Yarn :
The yarn which is made from finest and longer fiber we called combed yarn. This type of yarn is very fine for Fabric production.
  •  Please find below some points of combed yarn Quality of this types of yarn is very Smooth.
  • Even very soft yarn. The strength is higher than other (carded) types yarn.
  •  Price is higher than other (carded) types yarn.
  •  Softness is higher than other (carded) types yarn.
  • It produces high quality fabrics.
Carded Yarn

This types of yarns are – Low cost Harder hand fillings.

  •  Strength low.
  • It is use to produce normally low quality fabrics.
  •  Dyeing and knitting wastage is very high.

Combed compact yarn :

The compact spinning is a process where fiber strand drawn by drafting system is condensed before twisting it.

The most important requirement for perfect compact yarn is complete parallel arrangement of fibers and close position before twist is imparted. By keeping this point into consideration different machine manufacturers have developed different methods of compact spinning.

As maximum number of fibers are integrated into yarn body during spinning, so better utilization of fibers at the same time less fly generation and clean atmosphere is spinning department.

  • Yarn twist can be reduced by 10% while maintaining the same strength as the conventional ring yarn. Therefore, it is possible to increase the machine speed which ultimately results into increased production.
  • The weak point in the spinning zone (spinning triangle) is eliminated, the end breakage rate is considerably reduced which again leading to higher machine efficiency.
  • Increased strength and breaking elongation of yarn due to less protruding fibers and improved orientation of fibers, which leads to full realization of fiber strength.
  • Appreciable reduction in hairiness due to virtually elimination of spinning triangle.
  • Less expensive raw material can be used to produce good quality yarn.
  • Significant reduction in IPI, results better yarn quality.
  • Singeing can be completely eliminated.
  • Noil % at comber can be reduced as short fibers are better integrated into yarn body during spinning..
  • The improved characteristics of compact yarns gives higher yarn sales price.
  • Due to end breaks in spinning, improved winding efficiency as few clearer cuts.
  • Waxing of yarn can be eliminated.
  • Lower twist can be employed in doubling, to improve the strength of yarn.
  • Better packing density of compact yarn gives better abrasion resistance and which leads to fewer end breaks in weaving. also loom shed droppings and linting in knitting are reduced.
  • Degree of sizing can be reduced which reduces the sizing cost and the subsequent desizing cost.
  • Reduced end breaks in warping improves efficiency of warping.
  • Low end breaks in weaving improves weaving machine efficiency.
  • The compact spun yarn gives more clear cut contours in design .